Hypoxia inducible factor stabilizers: a promising treatment for chronic kidney disease

Koushiki Mani, Johnny Karini, Kuntolika Mani, Ananya Amrit


Anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a very common complication. The two main factors contributing to the development of anemia in CKD is decreased erythropoietin production and iron deficiency. Other factors that might play a role in the pathogenesis of renal anemia are: chronic inflammation leading to increased hepcidin, uremic toxins, and shorter red blood cell life span. The mainstay of treatment is iron supplementation, blood transfusion and erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA). The discovery of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has opened a new chapter in the treatment of anemia in CKD. The oxygen-sensitive HIF pathway plays a prominent role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. HIF stabilizers are a new set of drugs that inhibits prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins which are key regulators of HIF activity. Several such compounds are being developed to revolutionize the treatment of renal anemia.


Anemia, Chronic kidney disease, Hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF stabilizers

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