Published: 2019-04-23

Antiretroviral-induced adverse drug reactions in HIV-infected patients in Mali: a resource-limited setting experience

Aboubacar Alassane Oumar, Mamadou Dakouo, Anicet Tchibozo, Mamoudou Maiga, Guida Landouré, Raysso Abdi-Bogoreh, Paul M. Tulkens, Sounkalo Dao, Jean Cyr Yombi


Background: There are few reports in the literature from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) regarding antiretroviral-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now widely available in SSA, and ADRs during HIV infection are also frequent. In this study, we reported the frequency and risk factors of ART-induced ADRs in a Malian population.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in the HIV Care and Counseling Centre (CESAC) of Mali from 2011 to 2012. Adult patients infected with HIV and who had recently started ART were included and followed-up clinically Were included in this study, adult patients living with HIV and had recently started ART who were followed up for at least 6 months to determine the incidence of ADRs using Naranjo’s classification scale.

Results: During this study, 357 (42.3%) patients presented ADRs (40.1% of our patients (n=338) experienced at least one ADR, and 2.2% (n=19) experienced at least two ADRs). The prevalence of ADRs by organ system was: 45.9% neurological (n=164); 29.4% metabolic (blood chemistry) (n=105); 15.4% hematological (n=55). High probable rate of ADR was observed as indicated by the Naranjo score in 83.7% of the cases. Zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) use was identified as a risk factor for either anaemia or peripheral neuropathy whereas nevirapine (NVP) and female gender were risk factors for skin reactions. Patients with advance disease had the highest rate of ADRs compared to the others.

Conclusions: Based on the Naranjo probability scale, our data show that ADRs such as peripheral neuropathy and anemia are very frequent. These ADR was linked to AZT and D4T. Our findings highlight the need for active monitoring, continuous pharmacovigilance of ART and change of some ART drug in this population.


Antiretrovirals side effects, AZT, D4T, Mali, Proactive pharmacovigilance, Sub-Saharian Africa

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