DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20164777

A study of antinociceptive effect of venlafaxine in albino mice

Santhosh Ramakrishna, Shivashankaramurthy K. Gurusiddappa, Kiran L. Jambulingappa

Abstract


Background: Serotonin and norepinephrine are important neurotransmitters involved in pain inhibition in descending pain inhibitory tracts. Venlafaxine being an antidepressant exerts its mechanism mainly by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine like Tramadol. The objectives were to study the antinociceptive activity of Venlafaxine and its comparison with Pethidine.

Methods: A total of 32 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups with 8 animals in each group. Group 1 received normal saline as control in dose of 5ml/kg i.p, Group 2 received Pethidine as standard in dose of 30mg/kg s.c, Group 3 received Venlafaxine as in dose of 10mg/kg i.p and Group 4 received Venlafaxine in dose of 22.5mg/kg. Tail flick test and hot plate test were used for evaluating antinociceptive activity. All animals were subjected to the above mentioned tests before and 30 minutes after the administration of the drugs. Results were subjected to suitable statistical analysis.

Results: The results from the above mentioned tests showed that Venlafaxine in dose of 10mg/kg showed significant antinociceptive activity as compared to normal saline (p <0.05) but was not comparable to Pethidine (p >0.05). Venlafaxine in dose of 22.5mg/kg showed significant antinociceptive activity as compared to normal saline (p <0.05) and activity was comparable to Pethidine.

Conclusions: Venlafaxine in both the doses showed significant antinociceptive activity in acute models of pain in animals.


Keywords


Analgesic, Antidepressant, Neurotransmitter, Pethidine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fields HL, Martin JB. Pain: Pathophysiology and Management. In: Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson, Loscalzo, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine: 17th edition. Vol 1. New Delhi: Mc Graw hill companies; 2008:81-84.

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ. Analgesic drugs. In: Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ editors. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology: 6th edition. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007:588.

Guyton AC, Hall JE. Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations. In: Guyton. A.C, Hall. J.E. Editors. Textbook of Medical Physiology: 11th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2006:602.

Hudspith MJ, Siddall PJ, Munglani R. Physiology of Pain. Foundations of Anesthesia: second edition. Elsevier Mosby; 2006.

Godfrey RG. A guide to the understanding and use of tricyclic antidepressants in the overall management of fibromyalgia and other chronic pain syndromes. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(10):1047-52.

Rose MA, Kam PC. Gabapentin: pharmacology and its use in pain management. Anaesthesia. 2002;57(5):451-62.

Hocking G, Cousins MJ. Ketamine in chronic pain management: an evidence-based review. Anesth Analg. 2003;97(6):1730-9.

Rowbotham MC, Davies PS, Verkempinck C, Galer BS. Lidocaine patch: double-blind controlled study of a new treatment method for post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 1996;65(1):39-44.

Furst DE, Ulrich RW, Altamirano CV. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs, Nonopioid Analgesics, and Drugs Used in Gout. In: Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ, editors. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology: 11th edition. New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-hill; 2009:621-642.

Schumacher MA, Basbaum AI, Way WL. Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists. In: Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ, editors. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology: 11th edition. New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-hill; 2009:531-552.

Grosser T, Smyth EM, Fitzgerald GA. Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic, and Analgesic Agents; Pharmacotherapy of Gout. In Brunton L.L, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. Editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics: 12TH Edition. New York: Mc Graw-Hill; 2011:959-1005.

Berger M, Roth B. Pharmacology of Serotonergic and Central Adrenergic Neurotransmission. In: Golan DE, Tashjian AH, Armstrong EJ, Armstrong AW. Editors. Principles of Pharmacology: the pathophysiological basis of drug therapy. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business; 2012.

Klipa D, Russeau JC. Pain and Its Management. In: Kimble. K, Anne. M, Young, Yee. L, Alldredge, Brian K, editors. Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use Of Drugs: 9th Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009:8-2.

Vogel HG. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Pyretic Activity. In: Drug discovery and evaluation: pharmacological assays. 3rd completely rev., updated, and enl. ed. Berlin New York: Springer; 2008:984-1116.

Mary EL. Antidepressants as analgesics: a review of randomized controlled trials. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001;26(i):30-6.

Gultekin H, Ahmedov V. The Role of the Opiodergic system and Nitric oxide in the Analgesic Effect of Venlafaxine. The Pharmacological Society of Japan. 2006;126(2):117-21.

Berrocoso E, Mico JA. Role of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the antidepressant-like effect and the antinociceptive effect of Venlafaxine in mice. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;12:61-71.