Evaluation of immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Surendranagar city

Darshan K. Mahyavanshi, Shashwat S. Nagar, Mitali G. Patel, S. S. Nagar, Shyamal K. Purani, Girija P. Kartha


Background: Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity & mortality in children. One of the most cost effective & easy methods for child survival is immunization. In May 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially launched a global immunization programme known as Expanded Programme of immunization (EPI) to protect all the children of the world against 6 Vaccine Preventable Diseases by the year 2000. It was later redesignated as Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) since 1985. The objectives of this study were to assess the dropout rate and primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in Surendranagar city and to know the various reasons for partially or not immunizing the child.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study. Thirty clusters were selected out of a total of 282 blocks of Surendranagar using the cluster sampling method. Cluster sampling method was used for sample selection and the proforma designed by UNICEF was used as a study tool. Sample size was 210 children (7 Children from each cluster) of aged 12-23 months. The obtained data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests like Z test and X2 test.

Results: Out Of the 210 surveyed children, 121(57.62%) were males and 89(42.38%) were females. Immunization card was available for 69.52% of children and fully immunized were 70.47%. Coverage was highest for BCG (95.71%) followed by OPV3 (82.85%), DPT3 (79.52%) and lowest for measles (75.23%). As far as the dropout rate is concerned, it was 21.39%, 10.21%, and 9.37% for BCG to measles, DPT1 to DPT3, and OPV1 to OPV3, respectively. Amongst the various reasons main reasons for dropout or unimmunization of children were ignorance in about 64% and lack of information regarding time, place and schedule (21%).

Conclusions: Improvement should focus on reducing the dropout rate from DPT2/OPV2 to DPT3/OPV3 and improving coverage of measles and also Vitamin A.


Immunization coverage, Cluster sampling, Dropout rate

Full Text:



Yadav S, Mangal S, Padhiyar N, Mehta JP, Yadav BS. Evaluation of Immunization Coverage in Urban Slums of Jamnagar City. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:300.

Sharma R, Desai VK, Kavishvar A. Assessment of immunization status in the slums of surat by 15 clusters multi indicators cluster survey technique. Indian J Community Med 2009;34:152-5.

Massood A, Dwiwedi S, Singh G, Hassan MA, Singh A. Assessment of immunization status of children between 12-23 months in Allahabad district. National J Community Med 2011;2:346-8.

UNICEF proforma, www.iips.org.

Community Medicine with recent advances by A.H. Suryakantha. Modified Prasad`s Classification of 2009.

Reports on Multi Indicator Cluster Survey in slums of Surat city conducted by PSM Department, Govt. Medical College, Surat in assistance with UNICEF Gandhinagar (Gujarat), 1997, 1998.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (2005-2006)-India, Gujarat.

District Level Household Surveys (DLHS)-3, (2007-2008) India, Gujarat.

Surendranagar district data sheet report 2010-11.